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Lesson 4: England Before the Industrial Revolution

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a practical man 实干家

the rising town 新兴城市

arteries of communication 交通动脉

outstanding feature 显著特点

out of interest 出于兴趣

from dawn to dark 从早到晚

in the air 酝酿之中

conform to 符合

The Royal Society 皇家学会

the multi-purpose machine 多功能机器

the indian summer 兴旺的晚期

The Church of England 英国国教

grammar school英国的中等学校

conform to遵从、信奉

cottage industry 家庭手工业

diesel locomotive 柴油机车

工业革命 Industrial Revolution

基础产业 basic occupation

农业部门 Department of Agriculture

大运河 the Grand canal

自我奋斗的生涯 self-made career

The country was a place where me worked from dawn to dark, and the labourer lived not in the sun, but in poverty and darkness.

在农村,人们从早到晚都得干活,劳动者并不是沐浴在阳光下,而是生活在贫困和黑暗之中。

James Brindley of Staffordshire started his self-made career in 1733 by working at mill wheels, at the age of seventeen, having been born poor in a village.

斯塔福郡的詹姆斯·布林德雷,出生于一个贫困的农村家庭;1733年,他十七岁,就着手改良磨坊的车轮,从而开始了他那自我奋斗的生涯。

What aids there were to lighten labour were immemorial,like the mill, which was already ancient in Chaucer’s tiem.

那些帮助减轻劳动的机械都不知从那个年代起就有了。比如磨坊,在乔叟的时代就已经是古老的了。

It may seem strange to put into the same packet an industrial revolution and two political revolutions.

将一次工业革命同两次政治革命相提并论,似乎有些奇怪。

It was not simply a source of power, it was a new wave of movement.

它不仅是一种能源,而且带来了一场新的运动。

Brindley’s improvements were practical; to sharpen and step up the performance of the water wheel as a machine. It was the first multi-purpose machine for the new industries.

布林德雷所作的改良是很实际的:改善并加强水车的机械功能,这是为新工业提供的第一部多功能机器。

Brindley had begun on his own account, out of interest, to survey the waterways that he travelled as he went about his engineering projects for mills and mines.

布林德雷在为他的磨坊和矿井建筑工程到处奔走的同时,出于自愿和兴趣,对沿途经过的河道进行了勘察。

During the first half of the eighteenth century, in the old age of Newton and the decline of the Royal Society, England basked in a last Indian summer of village industry and the overseas trade of merchant adventurers.

18世纪上半叶,也就是牛顿的晚年,皇家学会衰落的那个时代,英国沐浴在农村手工业和商人冒险家从事的海外贸易交织的余晖中。

The universities also(there were only two, at Oxford and Cambridge) took little interest in modern or scientific studies, and they were closed to those who did not conform to the church of England.

大学(当时只有两所,一所在牛津,一所在剑桥)对现代的或科学的学科也不怎么感兴趣,这两所大学还把不信奉英国国教的人关在门外。

Brindley worked, for example, to improve the grinding of flints, which were used in the rising pottery industry.

例如,布林德雷努力改进燧石的研磨过程,燧石是新兴陶瓷工业使用的材料。

Two things are outstanding in the creation of the English system of canals, and they characterize all the Industrial Revolution.

在修建英国运河网的过程中,有两点是非常突出的,而这两点正是整个工业革命的特点。

Yet there was a bigger movement in the air by 1750.

然而,到了1750年,一场更大的运动已经在酝酿之中。

The canals were arteries of communication: they were not made to carry pleasure boats, but barges.

运河是交通的动脉,开运河不是为了走游艇,而是为了通行驳船。

The men who make the revolution are craftsmen: the mill-wright, the watchmaker, the canal builder, the blacksmith.

发动这场革命的都是些匠人:修造磨坊的、制作钟表的、开运河的、打铁的。

What makes the Industrial Revolution so peculiarly English is that it is rooted in the countryside.

这场工业革命的英国特色正在于它扎根于农村。

The Industrial Revolution is a long train of changes starting about 1760.

工业革命是指从1760年开始的一系列变革。

By 1820, it was standard to bring workers into a factory and have them overseen.

1820年,标准方式已经是把工人雇到工厂里,在工头监督下劳动。

Water had become the engineer’s element, and men like Brindley were possessed by it.

水成了工程师们大显身手的对象,像布林德雷这样的人对它都着了迷。

The summer faded. Trade grew more competitive.

喜悦渐渐消散。贸易竞争日趋激烈。

It is a well-known fact that the English have an obsession with their weather and that, give half a chance, they will talk about it at length.

大家都知道,英国人对天气情有独钟。一说到天气,话就没个完。

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