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CN English-American literature test paper (April, 2002) III

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Ⅲ.Questions and Answers(24 points in all, 6 for each)
Give brief answers to each of the following questions in English.Write your answers in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

45.As a rule,an allegory is story in verse or prose with a double meaning: a surface meaning,and an implied meaning.List two works as examples of allegory. What is an allegory usually concerned with by its implied meaning?

A. Buyan's pilgrim's Progress and Spenser's The Faerie Queene.
B. It is usually concerned with moral ,religious,political,symbolic or mythical ideas.

46.Inspiration for the romantic approach initially came from two great shapers of thought.Who are the two?And what ideas they expressed inspire the romantic writers?

A. The French philosopher,Jean Jacques Rousseau and the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
B.It is Rousseau who established the cult of the individual and championed the freedom of the human spirit;his famous announcement was “I felt before I thought.”Goethe and his compatriots extolled the romantic spirit.

47.The white whale, Moby Dick,is the most important symbol in Melville's novel.What symbolic meaning can you draw from it?

A.To Ahab,the whale is either an evil creature itself or the agent of an evil force that controls the universe,or perhaps both.
B.To Ishmael, the whale is an astonishing force,an immense power,which defies rational explanation due to a sense of mystery it carries. It is beautiful,but malignant at the same time. It also represents the tremendous organic vitality of the universe,for it has a life force that surges onward irresistibly, impervious to the desires or wills of men.
C.As to the reader, the whale can be viewed as a symbol of the physical limits that life imposes upon man. It may also be regarded as a symbol of nature, or an instrument of God's vengeance upon evil man. In general,the multiplicity and ambivalence of the symbolic meaning of the whale is such that it becomes a source of intense speculation, an object or profound curiosity for the reader.

48.Nature is a philosophic work, in which Emerson gives an explicit discussion on his idea of the Oversoul. What is your understanding of Emersonian “Oversoul”?

A.The Oversoul is believed to be an all-pervading power for goodness,omnipresent and omnipotent from which all things come and of which all are a part. It exists in nature and man alike and constitutes the chief element of the universe.
B.According to Emerson,it is a supreme reality of mind, a spiritual unity of all beings, and a religion regarded as an emotional communication between an individual soul and the universal Over-soul of which it is a part.
C.He holds that intuition is a more certain way of knowing than reason and that the mind could intuitively perceive the existence of the Oversoul and of certain absolutes.

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